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Steps in validating an instrument

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The purpose of this presentation is to analyze a survey instrument validation process that I have engaged in so as to conduct a large-scale survey across nine countries and 36 institutions in the Global South concerning the scholarly activities of current and potential users of Open Education Resources (OER).

The development process of the instrument consisted of the following six steps: After obtaining ethical clearance at each institution, the LC has to follow the data collection plan with random collection.

steps in validating an instrument-11steps in validating an instrument-34steps in validating an instrument-75

Groves (1987) defines measurement error as the "discrepancy between respondents' attributes and their survey responses" (p. Development of a valid and reliable questionnaire involves several steps taking considerable time.

Although the use of OER is growing in the Global South, it is not used as frequently or as broadly as it is in the Global North, perhaps due to a combination of cultural, demographic, socioeconomic and political factors.

However, the potential benefits of OER – especially the improvement of everyday life for those on the margins of society – should be understood by scholars, policy makers, and the public so that they can help promote greater social equity and empowerment.

In a review of 748 research studies conducted in agricultural and Extension education, Radhakrishna, Leite, and Baggett (2003) found that 64% used questionnaires.

They also found that a third of the studies reviewed did not report procedures for establishing validity (31%) or reliability (33%).